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The East African : Nov 28th 2015
46 The EastAfrican BUSINESS NOVEMBER 28 - DECEMBER 4, 2015 MANAG E R Be you≥ best advocate, negotiate you≥ way to a bette≥ pay package — with clients over contracts, with bosses over budgets, with employers over compensation. But what about all the opportunities for informal negotiations that arise? Do you know how to recognise and seize chances to move into a better role, change an untenable situation or ensure that you get credit for extra work? Negotiating on your behalf M can feel much less comfortable than negotiating as an agent for your company, especially when it happens outside the typical structure of a hiring or review process. More emotions are at play; it’s often difficult to figure out exactly what you want or how to start the conversation and failure carries a higher cost. In some organisations, advocating for yourself may be seen as being demanding or not a “team player.” This can be especially true for women, who are sometimes hit by what researchers call “the social cost of asking.” And in some cases, the issues you want to negotiate may challenge established ways of doing work. But executives hurt them- selves if they ignore everyday opportunities to push for better assignments, goals or performance measures; more resources or flexibility; or higher compensation. We all need a strategy for everyday negotiations that will allow us to come away not only successful but also still held in high regard by bosses and colleagues. I advise focusing on four steps: Recognise Negotiation opportunities aren’t always obvious, especially ost seasoned managers know how to handle formal negotiations at work Negotiating on your own behalf is uncomfortable but rewarding if handled well . Picture: File Start by making your value visible — for example, by reviewing the results of a recent project of yours. In that context you can mention your problem and your ideas for solving it. If the other party stonewalls, you can consider various tactics. One is to round up allies who will vouch for your value and encourage the person to negotiate with you. Another approach is to ac- knowledge and address one or more of your counterpart’s good reasons for saying no to prove that you’ve thought about his or her perspective. Often the response will be “Right, this is my concern,” which opens the door to a conversation about the issue. Navigate Once you’ve enticed the other party to negotiate, enter the conversation with an open mind. The proposals you’re prepared to offer are just starting points. Three types of questions can help the two of you develop a plan that works for everyone. Hypothesis-testing questions COMMENTARY DEBORAH M KOLB “Any two people typically feel asymmetrical desires to engage in everyday negotiations.” if you’ve never thought to ask for anything in the past. But some routine situations cry out for bargaining. For example, if you say yes to a special assignment or a request for help when you want to say no, that’s an opportunity to negotiate for something in return. When you’re asked to take on a new initiative, with its attendant risks, that’s an opportunity to negotiate for support. If your workload expands beyond what’s reasonable and cuts into your family time, that’s an opportunity to negotiate for more resources or to change the scope of your role. You must pick your battles, though. Your desired outcome should benefit not only you but also your organisation, as a result of your increased productivity and commitment and new cultural norms that allow colleagues to achieve the same. Prepare Preparation is critical to any negotiation. First, gather good information. The more you know about what others have asked for and been granted, the more comfortable you’ll feel crafting your own negotiation. You also need intelligence on the parties with whom you’ll be negotiating. How do they like to receive news or special requests? Do they want a lot of advance notice? Do they want you to present a solution or to develop one with you? Second, position yourself. In- terdependence gives people a reason to negotiate. So look at how your work enables your counterpart and others to suc- ceed; that will help you discern what he or she values in you and assess yourself in a currency that matters. Third, anchor with options. Negotiations require creativity. When you present many ideas, you’re framing the negotiation in a way that encourages the other party to join. Consider what matters to your counterpart and find multiple ways to satisfy both of you. In developing options, it helps to think what good reasons your counterpart might have for saying no. Initiate Any two people typically feel asymmetrical desires to engage in everyday negotiations. One has a problem or sees an opportunity; the other probably doesn’t and therefore expects business as usual. How can you shift a normal interaction into a collaborative rather than combative negotiation? start with “What if” and enable you to introduce ideas and solicit a reaction. Reciprocity questions involve if-then scenarios and build the notion of trading into the negotiation: “If I agree to do X, then what will you do?” Circular questions, which simultaneously introduce and gather information, ensure that the conversation is collaborative, not adversarial. They emphasise the relationship between you and your counterpart and often unearth deeper issues at stake. Everyday negotiations often require you to leave your comfort zone and challenge established practices. But all evidence indicates that they’re worth the effort — for you and for your organisation. Debo≥ah M. Kolb is codi≥ecto≥ of the Negotiations in the Wo≥kplace P≥oject at the P≥og≥amme on Negotiation at Ha≥va≥d Law School. She is a coautho≥ of Negotiating at Wo≥k: Tu≥n Small Wins into Big Gains. Evolving cybe≥ th≥eats p≥ovide fodde≥ fo≥ budding publishe≥s By J.M. OLEJARZ Harvard Business School CYBERCRIME IS one of the hottest topics of the digital age. Media outlets are full of stories about retailers, governments, tech companies, celebrities, ordinary people — everything and everyone — getting hacked. Even baseball teams are hack- ing their rivals now. And the latest series in the CSI television franchise? CSI: Cyber, starring Patricia Arquette and Ted Danson. Book publishers, too, are getting in on the action. Recent releases cover the many forms of cybercrime, why cybersecurity matters and why both businesses and individuals need to take these issues seriously. You couldn’t ask for a better overview than Future Crimes by Marc Goodman, a cybercrime adviser to Interpol, the United Nations and other institutions. He provides jaw-dropping statistics (the best anti-virus software catches only 5 per cent of online threats; 80 per cent of hackers work for organised crime rings) and a strong point of view on where our future vulnerabilities lie. Mr Goodman spends several chapters, for instance, on gaping security holes in the “Internet of Things.” One of my favourite examples, from 2013, is Chinese irons and teakettles that were illicitly outfitted with Wi-Fi cards, allowing the appliances to secretly join their owners’ home networks and spread viruses and spam. We have more than evil tea- kettles to reckon with, though. Goodman also touches on the many threats inherent in artificial intelligence and biotech — two areas poised for enormous growth — from killer robots to plagues that are genetically engineered to attack a specific person (say, a sitting head of state). These are nightmare scenarios, and they’re no longer just science fiction. Goodman gives us a much-needed reminder that all our wondrous technology can easily be turned against us. Equally alarming are the stories 80 pc Percentage of hackers who work for organised crime rings in “Swiped,” a detailed account of how hackers steal information and identities by Adam Levin, a cofounder of Credit.com. Our weak spots range from the seemingly minor (When you allow an app to access your phone’s contacts, how do you know you can trust the app’s maker with that data?) to the obviously major (What steps has your employer, medical provider or bank taken to secure your information?). Levin cites one study (originally published in Science) in which researchers were able to identify specific people in anonymised data sets by using “a receipt, an Instagram post and a tweet about a new purchase or a Facebook post that included the location of a favourite bar or a restaurant.” His main point is that we — particularly young people accustomed to sharing every detail of their lives online — need to be more vigilant about what we post and who has access to it. Theresa M. Payton and Theodore Claypoole agree. Their book, Privacy in the Age of Big Data, out in paperback earlier this year, explores the trade-offs between privacy and convenience and how our everyday technologies routinely force us to choose between the two, whether we know it or not. These and other new books on cybersecurity provide good, useful information and paint a frightening and comprehensive picture of cyberthreats today. Where they fall short is in trying to offer practical tips, because even the best advice will have aged by the time a book is published.
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Dec 5th 2015