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The East African : November 25th 2013
The EastAfrican NEWS NOVEMBER 23-29,2013 5 and integration agenda in East Africa SOCIAL DRIVERS OF INEQUALITY Malnutrition: Percentage of stunted children MINIMUM WAGES Malnutrition in childhood has a serious and often irreversible impact on a child’s future prospects. It even costs the country in terms of GDP growth. A malnourished child has on average a seven-month delay in starting school, 0.7 grade loss in schooling, and potentially a 10-17 per cent reduction in lifetime earnings – damaging future human capital and causing national GDP losses estimated at 2-3 per cent. Quality of maths & science education (rank/144) The quality of maths and science education is an early indicator of the future quality of a country’s skills base and human capital. Tanzania and Burundi fare poorly in the quality of maths and science education, compared with Rwanda, Kenya and Uganda. Still, with the exception of Rwanda, all East African countries are in the bottom half of the global rankings. This points to a significant structural impediment to transforming East Africa’s economies in the direction of skill- and knowledgebased innovation. Teaching time in Kenya and Tanzania schools In terms of the number of hours being taught, children in urban schools in Tanzania actually fare worse than their rural counterparts. Kenyan children in private schools benefit from an extra hour of instruction (3 hours, 28 minutes) compared with their public school peers in Kenya, which works out to 20 more days of teaching time over the course of a term, or two extra months of teaching during the course of a year. Overall, Kenyan children are scheduled to receive 30 more minutes of teaching per day compared with Tanzanian children. Official hours of teaching per day Actual hours of teaching - Rural schools Actual hours of teaching -Urban schools 5hr 12mins 2hr 11min 1hr 24min Burundi’s minimum wage was set in1988 and it has yet to be updated. In Tanzania, civil servants earn 3.4 times more than private sector workers. They have seen their real (inflation-adjusted) wages rise by 32 per cent between 2008 and 2011. Contrast this with private sector workers whose real wages declined by 10 per cent during the same period. In Uganda, 92 per cent of public sector workers earn a wage above the poverty line, compared with the average of 77 per cent of ordinary Ugandan workers. Source: State of East Africa Report 2013 Compiled by Christine Mungai, Graphics: Anthony Sitti Official hours of teaching per day Actual hours of teaching - Private schools Actual hours of teaching - Public schools 5hr 40min 3hr 28min 2hr 19min FIVE THINGS YOU (PROBABLY) DID NOT KNOW ABOUT E. AFRICA 1 Mobile phones are Uganda’s second biggest export, valued at $144 million, even though Uganda does not produce any cellphones. unequal. Tanzania has narrowed over the past six years, but for the wrong reasons — in the 2 3 The gap in malnutrition between the richest and poorest households in In 1985, Rwanda was East Africa’s most equal country. Today, it is the most richest Tanzanian households, malnutrition has actually gone up by 10 percentage points. 4 5 In Kenya, the share of wealth held in housing and land has fallen 5 per cent between 2000 and 2012. In rest of East Africa, this has risen between 4 and 22 per cent. Burundi’s richest 20 per cent earn $546 each, which is actually lower than the per capita income in Kenya ($808) and Rwanda ($583).
November 18th 2013
December 2nd 2013